FIRST ARTICLE (on the corporal exercises)
"The most beautiful thing a man can experience is the mysterious. This is the one fundamental emotion that lies within every art and science."
We intend to talk about very simple and well-known things. They are simple because they belong to Nature and because we know them atavistically.
If we sow a bean seed in an adequate environment we can foresee what will happen: it will sprout, grow with its very own characteristics and it will, finally, develop pods, inside which we may find identical seeds to the one we previously sow. It all happens because each seed contains a well determined genetic programme.
Every living being follows this path. We can thus easily predict what will happen during its evolution. This idea can also be applied to human beings: when a baby is born, we can tell beforehand that in the future it will reach the characteristics of an adult, be it a man or a woman. It all seems so natural that we don’t even notice these miracles unfolding right in front of us, day after day! A blooming flower bud; an ovenbird building its house without ever being taught to do so; a child experimenting with its first steps! In each and every living being there’s always some changing occurring.
In human beings these changes also happen, right from the moment of its generation up to the time of his death. That is what we call development, whether it is of a motor, linguistic, intellectual or even emotional origin. Even in our personality these changes do occur, depending on our experiences and on what we learn. The fact that we eventually reach adulthood does not necessarily mean that we ever stop developing... We are constantly changing, whether we like it or not, thanks to Nature’s wise set of rules!
WALKING – TALKING - SPEAKING
As we study the development of a human being, many approaches can be focused. To Steiner (1981), one of the most important connections to understand and improve education – and also the therapeutic process - is the one related to the relations between WALKING, TALKING and THINKING. He says that these three activities define the human being as: “Man is the only being that walks erectly, uses a codified language and elaborate ideas, in other words, a thinking being.” It is important to understand how Steiner characterises each of these activities.
WALKING is not merely the power of locomotion. To stand up and walk upright is only the most visible trace of a much more complex and larger process. It’s a process that brings the child from a horizontal position to a vertical one. The child will have to struggle against gravity and impose his body into space with balance and harmony, controlling every movement. Before the child manages to stand on his legs, he passes through many different phases: he rolls, creeps, crawls and finally he walks. This happens, however, only in the case of a child who has had a natural development. There are cases when the child doesn’t go through all these phases, or, if he does, he goes through some of them only partially. We then wisely say, for instance, that the child has “skipped” the crawling stage. Why do we say so? Because, once more atavistically, we know that it’s only natural that a child should crawl. All these phases are inherent to the very human nature and are reached through impulses sent by the body. Since they belong to the human genetic programme, they are bound to be important to the child’s development.
TALKING does not only refer to the spoken word, but it also includes any other type of communication. There are many different types of languages: gesture, mime, reading, writing, mathematics, Morse code and many more. According to Pedro Block, there is a kind of communication done by whistling in the Canary Islands. Apparently, they still use it to read psalms during religious ceremonies. Thus, people do communicate in different ways, the first being the way children use their own bodies to communicate. When they reach out an arm wishing to be taken into someone’s lap they are also making use of some sort of communication. As Boadella (1992) said, “even the deepest silence can tell us something about a person. It is impossible for an individual not to communicate”.
THINKING shouldn’t be seen as only the ability to formulate ideas, but also as the ability to learn and to adapt oneself to one’s environment.
As an example, let’s take a look on Aveyron’s story about the “Wolf-Boy”. When he was first found, on his teens, his behaviour was very similar to that of a wolf: he would walk on all fours; drink water by liking, exactly like animals do; howl like wolves (for it was his language). That means that he learnt and adapted himself to the environment that has been presented before him. However, if we take a pet, like a cat, and we raise it away from its equals and among human beings, by the time it reaches its adulthood it will behave just like any other cat. He will walk on all fours (unlike the human beings that have raised him); it will still mew (instead of talk) and have the same behavioural reactions as its equals, as though it has always lived among them.
Therefore, we reach a question: for what reason has the man (the wolf-boy) appeared to have lost his identity, his human nature (walking in all fours, howling, etc.) while the cat has kept its cat’s innermost characteristics? This is due to the fact that human beings have the ability to adapt themselves and learn. Steiner (1981) has included such characteristics in what he calls thinking.
Animals, in general, are programmed to follow its genetic potential and are not able to modify it. When it comes to men, however, the situation is different. He also has his own genetic programme but in order to make it effective, he needs an adequate environment. Once he has this requirement fulfilled, he will go through its development process, which is the same for everyone (for it is related to a genetic programme). He will learn how to walk, speak and think. On top of that, each one of us can enhance certain capabilities. Some develop motor capabilities better, which are linked to the process of walking; others develop better the talking activity; and there are those who develop their intellectual part better, which happens to be, in other words, the thinking process. It all can happen because human beings have the ability to chose; they have what is called free will! Not to mention the power of thinking... Only man has this wonderful ability to think, which is what discerns him from animals...
CONNECTIONS BETWEEN WALKING, TALKING AND THINKING
There is a manifestation that characterises each of these three activities.
We can say that a child starts to walk when he stands upright and moves horizontally, which happens around his first year of age. Around one and a half and two years of age, the child is learning how to communicate through oral language. But when can one say that the child starts displaying his capability to elaborate ideas? Steiner (1981) thought that this happened around the child’s third year of age, when he starts saying “I” to describe himself.
These three activities relate to, depend on and develop alongside each other. However, each phase and its respective age has a predominance of a particular one, and there is a precise order through which each one of these activities is acquired and shown.
As we already said, a child starts to walk around his first year of age, to talk around his second one and to think around his third one. During this sequence, says Steiner (1981), there is a certain dependence between these activities. He says: “by a mysterious PROCESS on the human body, in the same way that a child learns to walk, to guide himself through space, to move from one place to another, language comes as a manifestation of the walking process. Speech is therefore, a product of the walking process. In other words, it’s a product of one’s orientation in space.” Steiner (1981) goes on to say: “ it’s a true fact that when a child is beginning to talk, the whole organism is active. The exterior movements become language’s internal movements.”
This statement may seem strange at first, but Quirós (1979), a great Argentinean Speech Therapist, also admits that the whole body, the whole of the C. N. S. plays a fundamental role on the talking process. “It’s rather difficult to find a part of the C.N.S., that might not have any relation with communication or language. Even the spinal cord, that could at first seem not to have any direct relation with these essential functions, also makes an important contribution towards it. It informs the cerebral cortex about the existence of posture and movements of the body’s parts, which allows the person to use his body thoroughly in accordance to the correct correspondence of signs and symbols with his equals. We reaffirm therefore that there is no central nervous tissue that might not be somehow linked to language, on its most extensive meaning”.
Piaget, as Quirós, also mentions the connections these three activities referred to by Steiner (1981): “the sensorimotor intelligence, which comes before language, prepares, on the elementary action field, what will later on become reflected thought.” Piaget also says that there should be a bridge linking sensorimotor intelligence and reflected thought, and so he says: “... language develops itself in a certain way and only becomes thought when the last is able to allow a transformation to occur.”
What does it mean exactly? It means that everything depends on neurological maturity in order to manifest itself. Piaget and Steiner say the same thing using slightly different words. When Steiner mentions WALKING, Piaget talks about sensory-motor intelligence; when he mentions TALKING, the other refers to language and when it comes to THINKING, Piaget calls it reflexive thought.
Other Authors refers to the same subject using different designations but meaning the same. Vigotskii, Luria e Leontiev (1988) published a book entitled Language, Development and Learning. Quirós e Schrager (19779) have written Lenguaje, Aprendizaje y Psicomotricidad.
All these books talk about the same subject. They talk about the relations between the three activities that together build up Human beings definitions: - to walk, to talk and to think. One can’t take them apart, in the same way one can’t divide man.
It follows that, in the same way that speech develops from the ability to talk, thinking comes from language’s evolution. Speaking and Thinking are so related to each other that one can hardly distinguish what belongs to one or another, when it comes to intellectual activities.
The Doctor in charge of taking care of Aveyron’s wolf-boy said to the nurse that helped him: “make him talk, for only this way will we be able to determine whether he can think or not”. Rozental (1983), referring to autistic patients, affirms: “the failure to talk evidently obstructs the development of other intellectual activities, such as abstract thought, concept formulation or critic thinking, for they all depend on the development of verbal abilities.”
By analysing these statements I was assured that it wouldn’t be of any good to put an individual in front of a mirror to teach him how to talk or to correct certain articulation disturbs. Nor would we use games with pictures carrying names written with the same phonemes.
I first became aware of Steiner’s conference on WALKING, TALKING and THINKING just before completing the Speech Therapy Undergraduate course. I was not completely satisfied with the course, not due to the theoretic and scientific part, which happened to be extremely good, with competent teachers and a well-structured programme, but due to the practical and therapeutical one. I didn’t want to concentrate all my attention on the so-called symptoms; rather, I wanted to look for the facts that have caused them.
I agree with R. Steiner when he says that the walking PROCESS is what leads to the speech. All it was left to do was to find out what exactly this process was.
In the meantime, I was lucky enough to get in touch with Temple Fay’s work and his followers’, namely Carl Delacato, Glenn Doman, Raimundo Veras, and Edward Le Winn, among others.
The natural knowledge path taken by mankind is to base oneself on the knowledge left by one’s ancestors and to prepare the way to those yet to come. Thus walks humanity on its Gnostic evolution. As one writes a scientific paper, a thesis, one necessarily needs to hand a bibliographic citation. This actually shows that all new ideas have been based on previously existing ones. Science is like a true pyramid, in which one rests one’s feet on someone else’s shoulder and should, in turn, offer one’s own shoulder in order to allow this pyramid to continually grow. However, it is important that no one grows vain with the little contribution one gives. Nor should one forget those who have offered them their shoulder...
Sometimes, those who have allowed us to give a step forward aren’t even aware of the fact that they have helped us, mainly because most of them, who have bequeathed us their creations and their indications are no longer alive! I would like, thus, to render my sincere and humble homage especially to Rudolf Steiner and to Temple Fay. Their philosophies and indications have provided us with the opportunity to help countless other individuals who have sought us in order to have their problems eased.
Temple Fay was an American neurosurgeon who lived during the Second World War. Along side his collaborators, specially Doman and Delacato, who were incredulous with their time’s methods, he studied the human development. Besides their own personal experiences, they have used the huge work of Gesell on the development of normal children.
There is no point in telling the whole of Mr. Fay’s life work. Let us only mention the basic concepts on which he has based his method. His first premise states that ontogeny (developmental history of an individual organism), recapitulates, in certain aspects, phylogeny (the whole evolution of a species).
He called this development, the very one that brings a child from a horizontal position to an upright standing one, Neurological Organisation (it was called so because it happens through the very ontogenetic development). Delacato has defined: “Neurological Organisation it’s a physiologically optimum condition that is only achieved in Human Beings, as a result of an uninterruptedly ontogeny’s neural development. This development recapitulates phylogeny’s neural development. It starts around the first trimester of pregnancy and ends, in normal individuals, around their first six and half years of age. As it happens in all mammals, in Human beings this ordained development also progresses vertically through the spinal cord and all the other C.N.S. areas, up to the cortex level. The final development stage, which is peculiar only to Man, takes place on the cortex and is a lateral process (from the left to the right or from the right to the left)”. He also says that: “in order to be totally human, Man needs to be able to make use of language. Language in man is a result of Nervous System phylogeny’s development. Language, in an individual’s development, is a result of the developing and organisation of his Nervous System.”
Let us take special attention on this last affirmation. It basically means: language is a result of the neurological organisation. Neurological Organisation is described, in turn, as the ontogenetic development, meaning the phases through which the child goes before he can achieve an erect position and move, alternating each step’s advance. In other words, walk.
When we noticed that we had found the description of what R. Steiner has described as the walking process, it was as though we had found the Lost Paradise!
Temple Fay and his colleagues noticed that in many different populations and civilisations around the world normal children, regardless of what culture they were brought up in, would always make the same stereotyped movements that they called “patterning”. They have also noticed that children with brain injuries couldn’t make these movements properly.
So they thought: “Were we to help a patient to do these movements, even though it would be done unconsciously, would the C. N. S. ‘learn’ it and do it naturally afterwards?”. They have done so and noticed that, in fact, the child would start doing the movements by himself later on. What is more, they noticed that, sometimes, the child’s development would continue as though a blockade that was obstructing his development had been taken away. After the “patterning”, they had also included other movements that are inherent to the natural development of a child such as rolling, creeping, crawling, walking on all four and etc... The results achieved were the same.
They have called this process Neurological Reorganisation (NRO), which should be seen as an ontogenetic’s organisation recapitulation, done, phase by phase, in the same sequence as that of the normal development.
To myself as a Speech Therapist (Fonoaudióloga) looking for a therapy concerned with the leading factors to the symptoms, it was a great finding.
Keeping in mind that Steiner said that the walking process leads to speech (meaning any type of language), I was convinced that I had finally found my way. I started applying the therapy to some children, while not doing anything new to others. I noticed that the ones treated with the Neurological Reorganisation Method would show a much better and more effective improvement. Thus, I began to use it in every speech and language case, achieving very positive results. NRO works with the whole body, and so it should be because the body is, in a way, the predecessor of language, writing and reading. The gestural language and mime come much earlier in life than does the articulated speech.
It is worth explaining to the reader that NRO is not the only proceeding used in our therapeutic process. It serves as a support in all cases but some other exercises are used depending on the nature of the disorder involved.
As a Speech Therapist, however, I felt that there was something missing in order to complete Temple Fay’s method. According to his philosophy, if a child is not able to perform a certain activity, for instance, to crawl, one shouldn’t exercise crawling itself, but concentrate on the activities that precede this difficulty. Knowing that the Vegetative-Reflex Functions (respiration, suction, mastication, deglutition) are known as the pre linguistic functions - which are the ones that prepare the neuro-musculature to articulate phonemes, words and speech as a whole - I noticed some particularities on my patients. Children with speech problems (especially those with cerebral palsy) hadn’t developed these functions properly and speechless patients had partially lost these functions’ praxis. Following Temple Fay’s philosophic thought, instead of trying to correct speech and articulation directly, I started working on these essentials, pre linguistic functions.
An explanation on how we developed this work is now due. By an invitation from Dr. S. Interlandi, an internationally well-respected name, I started working on the Orthodontia Postgraduate Course at the University of São Paulo (USP), where I remained for nearly 6 years. My main concern at that time was with disturbs on the vegetative-reflex functions (VRF), specially mouth breathing and atypical deglutition (Tongue Thrust Swallowing, TTS), which are the main cause for the reappearance of dysfunctions treated previously with orthodontic treatment.
Dr. Interlandi, bearer of a very liberal vision for that time, thought that a speech therapist would be of some help on this aspect, for it was a matter of dealing with mouth functions. At the time I studied Speech Therapy, people wouldn’t mention atypical deglutition at all. In the same manner, Speech Therapy wouldn’t be heard of at the University of Orthodontia.
In a study and research exchange, done alongside Dr. Alael de Paiva Lino, it was possible to deepen the studies on this subject (I was already aware of Temple Fay’s philosophy at that time).
Having it as a basis and knowing that the musculature responsible for VRF functions is also responsible for speech articulation and for the upkeeping of the teeth arcade, I was able to develop a new method for the correction and re education of the before mentioned functions. I called this method Integrated Myofunctional Therapy. Integrated stands for the fact that it involves all mouth functions. We won’t describe the method in detail in here, for it has already been published on the Revista Ortodontia in 1976, as it is show on the Bibliography. The therapeutic effects of this new method have been so positive that I included it on ‘my own’ NRO.
We know that proprioceptors send impulses through the whole nervous system up to the cortex in a way that the Homunculus of Penfield can be fixed there, resulting on what is know as Corporal Schema. Corporal Schema, to Quirós, isn’t simply knowing how to give names to different parts of the body, but being able to control one’s body at any time one wishes to do so. This is exactly the natural maturation process that turns the neurological structures into functional ones. An individual with a well developed Homunculus of Penfield, in others words, with a mature Corporal Schema, is able to perform any movement with his body, including the ones necessary for speech.
As we saw above, information that comes from the body’s periphery can reach the brain’s cortex - more precisely the motor-sensitive areas (Homunculus of Penfield). However, one must have in mind that this representation of the body, called somatotype, can also be found on the spinal cord, on the cerebellum and even on the thalamus itself.
Every movement executed on the NRO’s exercises belongs to the human genetic programme, giving proprioception to muscles (neuro-muscular spindles), to the tendons (neuro-tendonious organs) and to the articulations (joint capsule receptors). Not only mouth’s area is extremely rich in extero and proprioceptors, as every human sucks, masticates, swallows and breaths. Therefore, the introduction of vegetative-reflex functions complements in a significant way the original version of NRO. This new method has been called Padovan’s Method of Neurofunctional Reorganisation.
In the other hand, I would like to make it clear that my therapeutic practice differs from that used by Doman and Delacato. I work with a different focus, mainly because my work has got a antroposophic philosophy (Steiner) background. The pedagogic method recommended by this philosophy (internationally known as Waldorf Pedagogy) only allows that a child be taught how to read when he begins to change his first dentition, which happens to be the moment when the C. N. S. is properly mature. This is when there can be a natural learning of writing and reading. This pedagogic method states that everything has its own good time and we should wait for the right moment to develop each activity. Whenever we say that a child is able or mature to develop a certain action, we mean that his C. N. S. has reached the correct maturation to perform this task. We should always respect a child’s neurological maturing time and that is exactly why we should know well the evolutionary phases. There are many authors dealing with this subject; however, in my opinion, Gesell work’s provides the most complete reference.
Other noticeable difference between some of these works is related to the sequence of the exercises in each one of them. On the method that was once called Doman-Delacato – recently changed to Human Potential developing method - an evaluation of the patient is done to determine in which development phase he is. Afterwards, exercises corresponding to the development phase right bellow it are done.
So says Bekeys about the C. N. S.: “C.N.S. is a complex intricate of feedback circuits. If we send more primitive impulses, other paths will open and new circuitry may be formed.”
For this reason, I always start from the most primitive exercises, following in each therapeutic session all the natural evolutionary phases.
Another difference between the methods concerns the intensity and frequency of each exercise. On the Padovan Method, the sessions take about 30 to 45 minutes, done twice a week. Only in some more serious cases this frequency is increased up to 5 times a week. Each exercise is done many times, accordingly to the physical abilities and necessities of each patient. This way, we try to prevent any muscle exhaustion that may happen.
One more relevant differentiator factor between the methods is related to the parent’s presence during the therapy sessions. I believe that parents do play a fundamental role as parents, watching over, following and informing any problems and changes that might happen to their children. It is not an easy task to perform such difficult roles at the same time: the one of a parent and the one of a therapist. Since they are so important, I always ask one of the parents (usually the Mother) to watch every therapy session. The Mother’s presence eases the child’s anxiety and the Mother has always the desire to know what is going on with her child. Sometimes, if necessary and depending on the exercise’s nature, she might even help the therapist.
THE METHOD’S EXERCISES
I will briefly describe the method’s exercises, for the main purpose of this article is just to give a general idea about the Padovan’s Method of Neurofunctional Reorganisation. It wouldn’t be possible to explain a whole method on an article for, even though this Method is quite simple, the exercises aren’t easy to be done and they need to be done perfectly so that just correct information is sent to the C. N. S.. The main exercises are:
Homolateral Patterning – is done in ventral decubitus, with the patient’s face turned to the same side as his bent superior and inferior members while the other side’s members stay relaxed and stretched along his body. Then, the sides are alternated sequentially.
Cross Patterning – also done in ventral decubitus. The patient’s face still faces the bent arm as before. The other arm has its hand over the patient’s back and, this time, it is this side’s leg that will be bent while the other one remains extended. Thus, bent arm and leg oppose each other. This position’s sides are also inverted time after time.
There are four others exercises that should be done before these two patterning but they are not described here due to a lack of space. However, the shown exercises should suffice by now, for they are the most important of this series.
After the patterning are done, it is time for one to work with the natural development activities peculiar to every individual. One works with the different types of children’s locomotion, always in the natural development order.
To Roll – it is such a natural thing that it doesn’t call for an explanation.
Homolateral Crawling– done in the same position used with homolateral patterning. The patient’s impels his body using its bent leg’s hallux and trusts his body forward pulling with the hand at the same side, and then alternating the sides.
Cross Crawling - one allows the patient to creep freely with his trunk more elevated. If he can’t do a cross movement (right hand at the same time as left leg and vice-versa), one lets him do it the way he can. By the time he manages to improve his cross patterning exercise, he will be able to do it by himself.
Crawling – It doesn’t need any explanation either.
Monkey’s Exercise – it’s done by doing a sort of crawling while keeping one’s leg extended. Arm’s power is worked a lot in this exercise and it is very important for those who can’t write properly.
Squatting and Standing Up - should be done with one’s feet’s soles on the ground (please note that there is a phase during a child’s development in which they spend a lot of time playing in this position).
Cross Walking - this march should be done with accentuated movements so that the proprioceptors get well stimulated. While one of the hands touches the patient’s back, the other one hits the lower bit of the opposite thigh, which should be raised. This exercise can’t be done with children who are less than three years old. Nor can it be done with patients that, although are chronologically old enough, have not reached this age neurologically.
The exercises mentioned above should be done in the same order that they have been presented. One should note that during the execution of this exercises – or activities – the patient progressively goes from a horizontal position up to a upstanding one, exactly the way it happens during a normal development.
Author’s Note: - The following exercises haven’t been published on the before mentioned magazine due to a lack of space.
Handspring – naturally, it can only be done with patients who are able to do it without the risk of suffering any physical harm, of any kind. For instance, it is only done with Down syndrome Patients with their doctor’s explicit authorisation.
Whirling Hammock – one should be careful while applying this exercise so that the patient does not feel sick. After a while (from two to three months), the amount of time this exercise takes should be slowly increased. This way, the patient will benefit from the exercise - for the vestibular stimulus it gives - and the patient won’t feel dizzy anymore.
Visual exercises – it’s composed by a series of exercises (always obeying the natural development phases) that produce some stimulus called Photo-motors reflexes. They can be done with either one or two eyes. It would take too much space to explain them in detail in here.
Hand Exercises – it is also too big a series to be explained in here.
Visual-Manual-Motor Co-ordination Exercises – after doing the visual and hand exercises, one can do many different of types of ball games.
Rope Jumping – it is a very important exercise in what concerns time-space orientation. There are also many different types that can be done, depending on what the patient needs.
(End of the note)
There are some other exercises, such as hoping, skipping, rhythmic skipping march, etc... Some children’s games can also be included for they do take part in the children’s natural development. They are, usually, pretty much the same in every culture and there’s no point in describing them in here.
After the exercises described above, we work with the Vegetative-Reflex Functions: respiration, suction, chewing and swallowing. Afterwards, we work with phonemes outputting, with well-defined exercises, accordingly to the nature of each pathology.
Every exercise is done while the therapist declaims verses. We try to choose them for their alliteration (in the magazine, by mistake, this word has been swapped by 'alteration'.) of phonemes, particularly the ones that the patient can’t pronounce properly yet. The stimulation is, therefore, done with correct models. Another concern is to try and choose verses containing good messages, in order to increase the patient’s vocabulary and to incite thinking. They are particularly important to bring rhythm to those who haven’t got it yet and are helpful because muscles usually respond better to rhythmic movements. They are also a source of motivation for patients usually like them, regardless of their age.
TO WHOMEVER MIGHT USE THIS METHOD
As a Speech Therapist, we use this method with patients with speech or language disorders. Actually, patients seeking for help through this method usually have these disturbs. These disorders are not only seen in patients with some sort of deficiency (such as Down Syndrome, cerebral palsy, mental disorders, autism, etc.) but also in normal and intelligent people, bearers of simple learning difficulties concerning reading and writing, etc.
Speech and language problems, to Temple Fay, “do not constitute different problems but rather, different faces of the same problem”. In other words, these problems were originated by the same cause, which may be a disorder during the development or organisation of the C. N. S.. If the source is the same, the treatment method used can also be the same, varying accordingly to the intensity of the disturb.
C O N C L U S I O N
As one can easily tell, this Method is composed by very simple exercises belonging to the very human nature. They have not been created artificially or by lucubration. Indeed, they are so simple that some people might even doubt their efficiency. However, nature is simple. Its laws are in everywhere and can be recognised, grabbed and used by anyone able and willing to do so. As Einstein once said: “there’s no logical path to the finding of the fundamental laws of the Universe – the only path is the intuition one. The mechanism responsible for discoveries isn’t logical and intellectual but rather, it is a sudden enlightenment, almost an ecstasy. Afterwards, it is true, intelligence analyses it and experience confirms the intuition”. Rudolf Steiner and Temple Fay have also had the privilege of having intuition and then, intelligence to confirm it with the use of experience. I had, in turn, well... I had the great luck of getting to know and enjoy both works...
Back to Einstein’s thought, mentioned in the beginning of his paper, I would like to add that I am not sure whether my work involves science or art. I am only convinced that both the Nervous System and Man are still quite mystifying with our limited knowledge. I use a bit of art when I recite verses during the exercise. I also make use of science because when studying the Nervous System, for instance, I became aware of clarifying scientific facts such as the Neurological Plasticity and Neurotrophic factors, which, I utterly believe, justify the work I do.
Once again, this is a very simple method... As simple as the very Nature, and, in our opinion, THE ONE WHO FOLLOWS WHATEVER THE WISE NATURE SHOWS AND TEACHES US IS LESS PRONE TO ERROR.
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2. CLARET, M.; SIMÕES JR., J.G. O pensamento vivo de Einstein. São Paulo, Martin Claret Editores, 1988.
3. DOMAN, G. O que fazer pela criança de cérebro lesado. 3a. Ed., Rio de Janeiro, Gráfica Auriverde Ltda., 1983.
4. LE-WINN, .B. Human neurological organization. Charles C. Thomas Publi-sher, 1969
5. PADOVAN, B.A.E. Deglutição atípica - reeducação mioterápica nas pressões atípicas de língua: diagnóstico e terapêutica. Revista Ortodontia, v.9, n.1, p.59-74, 1976.
6. PADOVAN, B.A.E. Die Entwicklung der Bewegung als Grundlage für die Sprache. Weleda Nachrichten, v.148, p.11-4, 1982.
7. PADOVAN, B.A.E. Neurologische Reorganisation und ihr Nutzen für behin-derte Kinder. Heilpädagogisher Kongressbericht - Innsbruck. Höbersdorf (bei Wien), Verlag Kaiser, 1992, p.464-8.
8. QUIRÓS, J.B.; SCHRAGER, O.L. Lenguaje, aprendizaje y psicomotricidad. Buenos Aires, Editorial Panamericana, 1979.
9. ROZENTAL, M. C. L. El autismo: enfoque fonoaudiologico. Buenos Aires, Medica Panamericana, 1983.
10. STEINER, R. Andar, falar e pensar. São Paulo, Editora Antroposófica, 1981.
11. VIGOTSKII, L.S.; LURIA, A.R.; LEONTIEV, A.N. Linguagem, desenvolvimen-to e aprendizagem. São Paulo, Ícone - Editora da Universidade de São Paulo, 1988.
12. WOLF, J.M. Temple Fay, M.D. Illinois, Charles C.Thomas Publisher, 1968.
· Article first published on the magazine “Temas sobre o Desenvolvimento” (Development topics) 3rd year, n. 17, March/April issue, pages 13-21, “Memnon Edições Científicas”
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Note - This Article’s title has wrongly been published as “Neurological Reorganisation”